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اشتباهات رایج در مکالمه زبان انگلیسی - Most important Functions in English

جمعه 1389/09/12

Most important Functions in English

28 مورد انواع کابردهای رایج و مهم در ساختارهای زبان انگلیسی

مجموعه ایی از توانایی ها و مهارت ها در کنار یکدیگر شما را قادر می سازد تا طبیعی تر و راحت تر به زبان انگلیسی صحبت کنید و دانستن کاربرد های ساختار های زبانی جزو این مهارت هاست. در این مقاله نسبتا طولانی سعی کردم تا یک فهرست از این کاربرد های مهم رو برای شما جمع آوری کنم. از جمله این کربرد ها می توان به این موارد اشاره کرد. بیان عقاید، پیشنهادات، نصیحت، دعوت، شکایت، معذرت خواهی و ...

28 Most important Functions in English

Collected & compiled by Hamid R. Bagheri

Source: http://www.commonmistakes.blogfa.com/

 

1. Gap Fillers

2. Opinions

3. Advice

4. Suggestions

5. Offers

6. Invitations

7. Complaints

8. Apologies

9. Prohibitions

10. Certainties

11. Probabilities

12. Improbabilities

13. Possibilities

14. Impossibilities

15. Likes and Dislikes

16. Preferences

17. Necessities

18. Permissions

19. Requests

20. Causes and Effects

21. Explaining and Justifying

22. Fears

23. Sympathy

24. Hypothesis

25. Regrets

26. Indifference

27. Dissatisfaction

28. Asking for Clarification

 

 

1. Gap Fillers: a short phrase or sentence to fill gaps while speaking

For speaking only:

  • ·         I mean....
  • ·         You see....
  • ·         Well, let me see...
  • ·         Look!
  • ·         Listen!
  • ·         If you see what I mean!
  • ·         Do you see what I mean?
  • ·         Let’s get this into perspective. 
  • ·         Watch it! 
  • ·         Picture this. 
  • ·         Look here! 
  • ·         All right!
  • ·         Is that clear enough?

 

2. Opinions: a thought or belief about something or somebody

Asking for Opinion

  • I was wondering where you stood on the question of immigration?
  • What's your position on global warming?
  • What's your opinion of the project?
  • What do you think of love?
  • How do you feel about building a space prison for dangerous criminals?

 

Giving Opinion

  • In my opinion the consequences of global warming will be fatal.
  • As far as I'm concerned love is the noblest feeling.
  • From my point of view, poverty could be fought with solidarity.
  • As I see it, our planet is dying.
  • I think / reckon / presume / gather it will get worse with time.
  • In my view immigration is caused by unemployment.
  • It would seem to me that technologies will control us sooner or later.
  • It seems to me that democracy is the solution for developing countries.
  • I feel the world is getting wilder than ever before.
  • I believe politics should be more human...
  • I figure that we are doomed to protect our planet before it is too late.
  • To my mind cloning should be restricted.
  • According to me Euthanasia should be banned.
  • What I think / mean / believe is that developed countries are selfish.
  • I mean that they don't try to help poor countries.
  • I may venture that they are extremely sadist.
  • As for me they like to be at top of the world.
  • For my part people in rich countries are nicer than their leaders.
  • I'd say that mankind is in great danger because of politicians.

 

Agreeing with an opinion

  • My view about this is positive.
  • I agree with this idea.
  • I agree completely with this idea.
  • I can't agree more.
  • I agree.
  • This idea is absolutely right.
  • I couldn't agree more on this.
  • I think this idea is perfect.

 

Partial agreement or polite disagreement

  • I agree partially with this idea.
  • This idea is partially right.
  • I see what you mean, but some developed countries are helpful.
  • That's one way of looking at it, but we should avoid over generalisation.
  • I see your point, but technology is not autonomous.
  • I agree with you, but developing countries should stop wars.
  • I think this idea is possible, but rich countries bear some responsibility in those wars.
  • I'm not sure you're right there.
  • I'm not sure that I agree with this idea.
  • The project is feasible, but it needs some more efforts.

 

Disagreeing with an opinion

  • I think it is a bad idea.
  • I'm afraid I can't agree with this idea.
  • I'm afraid I entirely disagree with you.
  • I think this idea is impossible.
  • I guess this idea is impractical.
  • I see that this idea is bad.
  • I think it is a bad idea.
  • I don't agree with this idea.

·         I suppose this idea cannot be implemented.

3. Advice: to give an opinion how someone or something should be or behave

Random Examples

  • If I were you, I wouldn’t buy this old computer.
  • Why don't you stay at home and watch TV?
  • You'd better go to bed early.
  • You ought to revise your lessons regularly.
  • If you take my advice, you'll tell your parents the truth.
  • You should drive slowly in town.
  • It might be a good idea to put on your coat. It's cold outside.
  • You should consider taking the keys before you leave.
  • I advise you to do the quiz again and again.

 

Declining to give advice

  • I don't know what to advise, I'm afraid.
  • I wish I could suggest something, but I can't.
  • I wish I could help.
  • I'm afraid I can't really help you. I have the same problem myself.

 

4. Suggestions: mentioning possible ideas or plans for other people and things to consider

Making suggestions

  • Let’s revise our lessons.
  • What about going to the cinema tonight?
  • How about playing cards?
  • Why don't we do our homework?
  • Couldn't we invite your grandmother to our party?
  • Shall we have a walk along the river?
  • What would you say to a cup of coffee?
  • Don't you think it is a good idea to watch TV?
  • Does it matter if we use your car?

 

Accepting

  • Ok. Yes, let's.
  • Yes, I'd like to
  • Yes, I'd love to.
  • What a good idea!
  • Why not?
  • Yes, with pleasure.
  • Yes, I feel like taking a walk.

 

Disagreeing

  • No, let's not.
  • No, I'd rather not.
  • I don't feel like it.
  • I dislike doing homework.
  • What an awful idea!

 

5. Offers: asking someone whether they need anything or not

Making Offers:

  • Can I help you?
  • What shall I do for you?
  • Would you like me to check this computer for errors?
  • Shall I bring you a glass of water?
  • I'll buy you a coke. Shall I?
  • What/ Where/ Which ... would you like me to...?
  • Do you want me to post that letter for you?
  • I’ll be glad to help?

 

Accepting an offer:

  • How kind of you! Thank you very much.
  • That’s very good of you!
  • That’s terribly kind,. Thank you very much.
  • Yes, please do.
  • What a good idea!
  • Yes, please.
  • Thanks. That would be excellent.
  • Yes.

 

Refusing or rejecting an offer:

  • It’s all right thanks. I can manage that alone!
  • No, thank you. But I am very grateful
  • That’s awfully kind, but there’s no need.
  • No, please don't bother.
  • No, thank you.

6. Invitations: asking someone to go to an event

Inviting

  • I was wondering whether you would stay for dinner.
  • I'm going to my uncle's wedding party next Sunday. Would you like to come, too?
  • Come along!
  • Why don't you come?
  • Will you come, too?
  • You must come over?
  • You must pay us a visit.
  • You must come back some time.
  • We must get in touch...
  • I'll give you a call and fix something.
  • Look me up next time you are around (here).

 

Accepting the invitation

  • Ok. I'd like to!
  • Well, I'm free then. Thank you. I'd like to come.
  • Well, I'm not doing anything then. I'll come. Thanks.
  • I am not doing anything special then. Thank you. I'd like to come.
  • Ok!

 

Refusing the invitation

  • I'm afraid I can't. I'm busy then.
  • I'm sorry but I can't. I'm going somewhere that day.

 

7. Complaints: when someone says that something is wrong or not satisfactory

Complaint

  • I have a complaint to make. ..............
  • I'm sorry to say this but.................
  • I want to complain about...................
  • I'm afraid I've got a complaint about...............
  • I'm angry about................

 

Responding to a complaint

  • I'm so sorry, but this will never occur again.
  • I'm sorry, I promise never to.................
  • I'm really sorry; I'll do my utmost/best not to...............

 

8. Apologies: the act of saying sorry

Apologizing

  • I do apologize for ___ing..........
  • I must apologize for ___ing.........
  • I am so sorry for ___ing.........
  • I shouldn't have...........
  • It's all my fault.
  • I'm ashamed of ___ing.........
  • Please, forgive me for ___ing.......
  • I'm terribly sorry for ___ing..........
  • Pardon me for this............
  • Please, forgive me for my........
  • Please, accept my apologies for ____ing.........
  • Accepting the apology
  • That's all right.
  • Never mind
  • Don't apologize.
  • It doesn't matter.
  • Don't worry about it.
  • Don't mention it.
  • That's OK.
  • I quite understand.
  • You couldn't help it.
  • Forget about it.
  • Don't worry about it.
  • No harm done.

 

9. Prohibitions: when (doing) something is forbidden

Expressing Prohibition

  • You aren’t allowed to.........
  • You mustn’t.........
  • It’s forbidden..............
  • You aren’t permitted to...........
  • You aren’t to............

 

EXAMPLES

    1. You aren’t allowed to smoke in public places.
    2. It’s forbidden to walk on the grass in public gardens.
    3. You aren’t to wear indecent clothes in the street.
    4. You mustn’t drive fast.
    5. You aren’t permitted to park your car here.

 

10. Certainties: the state of being completely certain or sure

Expressing Certainty

  • Yes, I'm certain.
  • Of course.
  • I'm positive my grandmother repairs the car.
  • She must be excellent at mechanics.
  • I'm absolutely sure.
  • It's certain that she is a good mechanic.

 

11. Probabilities: the likelihood of something happening or being true

Expressing Probability

  • It is probable that my grandfather repairs the car.
  • I guess he is fit for the job.
  • I bet my grandmother is better than he is.
  • I expect / suppose they are good mechanics.
  • I dare say / should say / presume they know what they should do.
  • She may have repaired the car while you were out.
  • Ali may come any minute.
  • Maybe / perhaps the problem won’t be serious.
  • It will probably rain this evening.
  • I’m likely to do the work myself.

12. Improbabilities: the unlikelihood of something happening or being true

Expressing Improbability

  • No, probably not.
  • I don't suppose my grandfather repairs the car.
  • I doubt my grandmother does, either.
  • S/he is unlikely to repair the car.
  • I don't think they can repair that car.
  • I'd be surprised if s/he repaired the car.
  • It's unlikely s/he will repair the car soon.

 

13. Possibilities: the chance that something may happen or be true

Expressing Possibility

  • My grandmother may repair the car.
  • Maybe she will repair it.
  • Perhaps she will repair it.
  • Possibly, she will repair it.
  • It's possible she will repair it alone.
  • She might repair it.
  • I suppose she might repair it.
  • There's a chance she'll repair it before sunset.

 

14. Impossibilities: the chance that something may not happen or not be true

Expressing Impossibility

  • No, it's impossible to repair that old Chevrolet.
  • She can't possibly repair it.
  • I'm sure she doesn't repair it.
  • She definitely doesn't repair it.
  • She certainly doesn't repair it.
  • There's no way she repairs it.

 

15. Likes and Dislikes: the things that someone enjoys or may not enjoy

Expressing Likes:

  • I like Couscous.
  • I like eating couscous with my bare hand.
  • I enjoy eating couscous.
  • I love couscous.
  • I adore eating couscous.
  • I'm fond of couscous.

 

Expressing Dislikes:

  • I hate pizza.
  • I don't like pizza.
  • I can't bear pizza.
  • I can't stand pizza.
  • I dislike pizza.
  • I detest pizza.

16. Preferences: when you like something or someone more than another person or thing

Asking about preference

  • Do you prefer tea or coffee?
  • Would you prefer tea or coffee?
  • Would you rather milk or Orange Juice?
  • Which would you prefer? Doing homework or watching TV?
  • Which would you rather, this bike or that one?
  • Would you prefer to stay here?
  • Would you rather have a drink?

 

Expressing Preference

  • I prefer tea (to coffee).
  • I'd prefer to have coffee.
  • I'd rather have tea.

 

EXAMPLES

    1. I prefer doing my homework to watching television.
    2. I'd prefer to go out than to stay with you.
    3. I'd rather go to bed than see that boring film.
    4. I'd prefer to sleep.
    5. I'd rather sleep.

 

17. Necessities: the need for something

In the present

  • I have to buy some more eggs for my famous cake.
  • I have got to repair that old car of mine. (informal)
  • I must see the doctor soon because I don't feel well.
  • It is necessary that I take a taxi. I'm late.

 

In the past

  • I had to work extra hours to pay my bills.

 

In the future

  • I'll have to borrow money.

 

Lack of necessity:

In the present

  • I don't have to drive fast.
  • I don't need to write the report myself. My secretary can do that for me.
  • I needn't buy all these things.

 

In the past

  • I didn't have to tell him about my project.

 

In the future

I won't have to revise my lessons. I learn them by heart.

18. Permissions: If someone is given permission to do something, they are allowed to do it

Asking for Permission

  • Can I go out, please?
  • May I Open the window, please?
  • Please, can I have a look at your photo album?
  • Please, may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish?

 

Expressing Permission

It is allowed:

Present & Future

  • You might vote if you are 18.
  • You may speak to the manager.
  • You could see me this afternoon. I'm free then.
  • You can put on my jacket.

 

It is not necessary:

In the present

  • You don't have to take your medicine if you feel better.

In the future

  • You won't have to come early tomorrow. There won't be much to do.

 

It is not compulsory:

Present & Future

You needn't answer all the questions. Three are enough.

You don't need to have a visa to go from a European country to another.

19. Requests: when you politely or officially ask for something

Expressing Request

  • Can you close that door, please?
  • Will you turn down that radio, please?
  • Could you possibly give me that red pen over there?
  • Would you bring me a glass of water please?
  • Would you like to put that case on the reception desk, please?!
  • Would you mind sending these letters for me, please?!

 

20. Causes and Effects: the reasons why and the results or consequences of something happening

There are many ways to express cause and effect relationships.

EXAMPLES

1.      She didn't attend the meeting since she was not interested.

2.      I'm glad the children are out, for I have got a lot of work to do at home.

3.      She didn't tell the police because of fear.

4.      Owing to his carelessness, the man had an accident.

5.      I'm sorry for being late.

6.      Thanks for your attention.

7.      He went to hospital because he was not feeling well.

8.       

 

Now, carefully study the following structures:

No.I

  • The cause of failure is laziness.
  • One reason for failure is laziness.

 

No.II  

  • Failure is caused by laziness.
  • Successive failures are due to carelessness.

 

No.III

  • The effect of laziness is failure.
  • The consequence of laziness is failure.
  • The result of laziness is failure.
  • One effect/consequence/result of laziness is failure.

 

No.IV

  • He is lazy. Because of this, he fails.
  • She is hard-working. So, she succeeds.
  • He wasted his time. Consequently he didn't succeed in his exams.
  • She works hard. Therefore, she always succeeds.
  • She works hard. As a result, she always gets good marks.

·         He never revises his lessons. As a consequence, the teacher always punishes him.

21. Explaining and Justifying: a good reason or explanation for something

  • The aim of the project is to promote the rural world.

 

  • The main reason behind this project is to help the students become autonomous.

 

  • It seems to me evident that technology has already affected our mode of life.

 

  • It seems to me obvious that computers become a necessity in our modern life.

 

  • Taking into consideration factors like unemployment and the fierce competition in the labour market, then the students have to seek knowledge everywhere, and should not rely on school sources only. They aren't enough.

 

  • All things considered, I think students have to do their best to use all the possible means of communication in the profit for their school projects.

 

22. Fears: an unpleasant emotion or thought that you have when you are frightened or worried

Expressing fear

  • What scares / frightens me most is.........
  • My chief / major/ main concern is......
  • I can’t help being worried by.....
  • The problem is....
  • It is ............ that scares me.
  • I’m dreading the final verdict.

 

23. Sympathy: (an expression of) understanding and care for someone else's suffering

Expressing Sympathy

  • ·         What a pity / shame that.....
  • ·         How disappointing!
  • ·         What bad / sad news!
  • ·         It’s a great disappointment!
  • ·         How terrible!
  • ·         It’s terrible that........!

 

24. Hypothesis: an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved

I. Expressing hypothesis about the past

    

1. CERTAINTY

  • ·         Yes, I’m certain it was a ghost.
  • ·         I’m sure it was only a black cat.
  • ·         It must have been a rodent.

 

2. PROBABILITY / POSSIBILITY

  • ·         Perhaps it was a ghost.
  • ·         It might / may / could have been a black cat.

 

3. IMPOSSIBILITY

  • ·         It couldn’t / can’t have been an animal.
  • ·         I’m sure it wasn’t a ghost.

 

25. Regrets: a feeling of sadness about something sad or wrong or about a mistake that you have made

Expressing regret about past mistakes

                            

  • ·         I oughtn’t to have sold my old books.
  • ·         I shouldn’t have done that.
  • ·         I regret that ...

 

26. Indifference: the state of mentioning you are not interested nor interested in (doing) something

Expressing indifference

 

A. POLITELY

  • ·         That’s all right.
  • ·         It doesn’t matter at all.
  • ·         I don’t mind.

B. LESS FORMAL

  • ·         It’s all the same to me.
  • ·         I don’t care.

C. VERY INFORMAL

  • ·         Who cares?!
  • ·         So what?!

 

27. Dissatisfaction: the state of mention you are not pleased with something or somebody

Expressing Dissatisfaction

  • I’m fed up with someone or something.
  • I’m tired of someone or something.
  • I’m sick of someone or something.
  • I’m sick and tired of someone or something.

 

28. Asking for Clarification: the state of asking for more explanation and describtion

Requesting Clarification:

Formal

  • ·         Excuse me. What was that again?
  • ·         Pardon me. Would you mind repeating that   
  • ·         Pardon me. Could you repeat that please?
  • ·         I beg your pardon.  Would you mind repeating that?
  • ·         I’m sorry.  I didn’t get the last part.
  • ·         May I interrupt?   Could you say that again please?

Informal (with friends)

 

  • ·         What? I didn’t catch that.
  • ·         What did you say?   I didn’t get the last part.
  • ·         Huh? (impolite)   You lost me.
  • ·         I didn’t get that. Can you make yourself clear?
  • ·         I am completely in the dark.

 

Asking for clarification for good understanding

  • ·         If I understand the terms correctly.............. Is that right?
  • ·         Could you elaborate on that?
  • ·         Do you mean......
  • ·         I was under the impression that.........
  • ·         Let me see if I have that right. .................. Is that so?
  • ·         Use Question Tags.
  • ·         I can’t understand.......
  • ·         I am not sure I got your point.
  • ·         Would you clarify that a little, please?

 

Giving Clarification and checking for understanding.

FORMAL

  • ·         I mean that......
  • ·         What I mean is that....
  • ·         Does that make sense to you?
  • ·         Am I making sense?
  • ·         Am I clear enough?
  • ·         Do you get that?
  • ·         Have I made myself clear?
  • ·         Do you see what I mean?
  • ·         Do you understand so far?
  • ·         Are you following me?

 

INFORMAL

  • ·         Did you catch that?
  • ·         Do you understand?            
  • ·         Is that clear now?             
  • ·         Right?
  • ·         Okay, so far?                        
  • ·         Did you get that?      
  • ·         Got it?

 

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