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اشتباهات رایج در مکالمه زبان انگلیسی - PASSIVE Voice in English

دوشنبه 1390/04/20

PASSIVE Voice in English

جملات و ساختارهای مجهول در زبان انگلیسی در یک نگاه

یکی از اشکال زمان ها در زبان انگلیسی فرم مجهول یا Passive Voice است که در آن تمرکز ساختار جمله به روی مفعول جمله و یا عمل رخ داده است و نه فاعل. در این پست تمام ساختار های جملات مجهول را بررسی می کنیم و به نکات و ساختار های اینگونه جملات می پردازیم.

PASSIVE Voice in English

Collected & compiled by Hamid R. Bagheri

Source: http://www.commonmistakes.blogfa.com/

Functions and examples

We use the passive when who or what causes the action is not important or is not known, or when we want to focus on the action.

 

commonmistakes.blogfa.com

1. The rubbish is taken out every day.

(We don't know who takes the rubbish out, or maybe it's not important)

 

2. The Great Wall of China was built thousands of years ago.

(It's not important exactly who built it, we want to focus on the action of building)

 

3. The money has been stolen.

(We don't know who stole it, and we want to emphasize the action of stealing)

 

4. My windows are cleaned once a month.

(It's not important who cleans them. The action of cleaning is more important)

 

Form

to be + past participle

Present simple
Active: My mother washes my clothes
Passive: My clothes are washed by my mother.

Present continuous
Active: My mother is washing my clothes
Passive: My clothes are being washed by my mother.

Present perfect
Active: My mother has washed my clothes
Passive: My clothes have been washed by my mother.

Past simple
Active: My mother washed my clothes
Passive: My clothes were washed by my mother.

Past continuous
Active: My mother was washing my clothes
Passive: My clothes were being washed by my mother.

Past perfect
Active: My mother had washed my clothes
Passive: My clothes had been washed by my mother.

Future 'will'
Active: My mother will wash my clothes
Passive: My clothes will be washed by my mother.

Future 'going to'
Active: My mother is going to wash my clothes
Passive: My clothes are going to be washed by my mother.

Future continuous
Active: My mother will be washing my clothes
Passive: My clothes will be being washed by my mother.

Future perfect
Active: My mother will have washed my clothes
Passive: My clothes will have been washed by my mother.

Modal verbs
Active: My mother might wash my clothes
Passive: My clothes might be washed by my mother.

Active: My mother can wash my clothes
Passive: My clothes can be washed by my mother.

Active: My mother must wash my clothes
Passive: My clothes must be washed by my mother.

Important points

If there are two objects in the active sentence, two passive sentences are possible.

Active: They gave me 50 dollars to do it.

Passive: I was given 50 dollars to do it / 50 dollars was given to me to do it.

 

Get is often used instead of be in informal spoken English.

I got offered the promotion.

The table got damaged in the fire.

I got asked to present the award.

 

The subject of the active verb (sometimes called the agent) is not usually expressed in passive sentences, because it is unknown or unimportant. However, if it is used, it is usually preceded with 'by'.

The painting was done by Picasso.

When we talk about a tool used by an agent, it can be preceded by 'with'.

The painting was done with oils on canvas.

نکته: برای مطالعه کامل و مطالعه جزئیات درمورد جملات مجهول به کتاب های مرجع گرامر رجوع کنید.

برای مشاهده رایج ترین اشتباهات در هنگام استفاده از جملات و ساختار های مجهول در زبان انگلیسی به لینک زیر در همین وبلاگ رفته و از فهرست الفبایی زمان های مورد نظر را انتخاب کنید و جملات غلط را اصلاح کنید. سئوالات خود را در قسمت نظرات مطرح کنید.

لینک فهرست الفبایی اشتباهات رایج مربوط به جملات مجهول:

http://commonmistakes.blogfa.com/post-157.aspx

مثال:

نویسنده: حمیدرضا باقری

منبع: http://commonmistakes.blogfa.com

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نوشته شده توسط حمیدرضا باقری در 21:44 |  لینک ثابت   •